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A Dictionary of Neuropsychology by Diana M. Goodwin (auth.)

By Diana M. Goodwin (auth.)

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BILATERAL DYSFUNCTION OF TEMPERAL LOBES: 1. Korsakoffs amnesic defect; 2. apathy and plastidity; 3. loss of sexual capacity; 4. loss of other unilateral functions; 5. KluverBucy syndrome. BILATERAL HEMIANOPIA: true hemianopia. BILATERAL PREFRONTAL LESIONS: severe impairment in reporting the time of day and in decoding proverbs, perseveration (inflexible behavior, inability to change response sets), impaired response inhibition (impulsivity). BINASAL HEMIANOPIA: heteronymous hemianopia in which the defects are in the nasal half of the field of vision in each eye.

BASAL GANGI ON LESION: difficulty in rapid alternating sequences of movement (clumsiness); unable to inhibit approach behavior; damage to different parts can produce changes in posture, increases or decreases in muscle tone, and abnormal movements such as twitches, jerks, and tremors; see also Parkinson's Disease, Wilson's Disease, akinesia, dystonic postures. BASAL GANGLIONIC: choreic, athetotic, subthalamic. BASAL GANGLIONIC LEVEL OF FUNCTIONING: (in the decorticate animal); able to link automatic movements to voluntary movements so that the behaviors are biologically adaptive; probably involves inhibition or facilitation of voluntary movements.

BLOOD SUPPLY OF THE BRAINSTEM: main blood supply is derived from the paired vertebral arteries which join at the pontomedullary junction to form the basilar artery. From its medial side each vertebral artery gives rise to a branch that joins with its fellow to form the anterior spinal artery which supplies part of the central medulla and the bulk of the spinal cord down to 81. Laterally, each vertebral artery gives off a variable branch, the posterior inferior cerebellar artery which may be absent in 25% of people.

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