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A French-English grammar : a contrastive grammar on by Morris Salkoff

By Morris Salkoff

1. desk of symbols, pxi; 2. Preface, pxiii; three. 1. advent, p1; four. 2. significant sentence constructions; the verb; the item, p25; five. three. The Noun word, p119; 6. four. Adjuncts, p167; 7. five. Conclusions; functions, p313; eight. References, p335; nine. Index, p339

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Extra resources for A French-English grammar : a contrastive grammar on translational principles

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However, a smoother translation is obtained if an inversion is effected in all cases. The order tV Obj Sbj is also found in relative clauses, and subordinate clauses headed by où, que, etc. the attitude that attribute to this author most of the readers —» the attitude that most of the readers attribute to this author b le problème que pose à un physicien l'écoulement de ce fluide → the problem that the flow of this fluid poses to a physicist c Il n'y a pas de lieu où soit plus nette la différence entre ces pays → There is no place where the difference between these countries is clearer 30 A FRENCH-ENGLISH GRAMMAR The object of attribue and pose is N1 à N2, but only a part of that object - à N2 follows the verb: the direct object N1 has been pronominalized to que.

A simple but sufficient approximation is to translate this predicate as does indeed V Obj for verbs taking a complement clause as object, and as does somewhat V Obj for all other verbs: (21)a Max n'est pas sans (savoir + s'imaginer + se douter) que Ph → Max does indeed (know + imagine + suspect) that S b L'armée n'est pas sans (courir des risques dans cette bataille + craindre des représailles) → The army does somewhat (run some risks in this battle + fear reprisals) Note that the problem of translating correctly the small nuance of meaning carried by ne pas être sans can be avoided simply by deleting it: without ne pas être sans, the 22 A FRENCH-ENGLISH GRAMMAR translations of (21) would become Max knows that S and The army runs some risks in this battle.

By deleting it) and to insert an auxiliary before the subject, as in (15): (17)a Est-ce que Jo lit ce livre? → (Does Jo read + Is Jo reading) this book? b Est-ce que Jo serait venu de Paris? → Would Jo have come from Paris? Sentences exhibiting the subject inversion seen in (15) can also be preceded by one of the sequences {Prep) [quand + où + comment + pourquoi + qui + quoi] or by Prep NP(qu-), where NP(qu-) is a noun phrase containing a form of quel- or lequel {which, what). The sentence is translated as in (15): (18)a [Quand + où] Max a-t-il lu ce livre?

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