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A tonal grammar of Kwanyama by Riikka Halme

By Riikka Halme

Kwanyama ('Oshikwanyama' in accordance with the legit Namibian average) is a Wambo language, and correspondingly belongs to the Bantu languages. it truly is spoken by means of way over part 1000000 humans in South Angola and Namibia.
Certainly this quantity comprises the audio system of different closely-related Wambo forms in Angola. those languages were studied rather little, and the research in their tonal structures has been relatively overlooked. the current publication is the 1st comic strip of Kwanyama grammar with a scientific account on tone. the most target is to supply an research of the tonal procedure of this language. for that reason the research discusses either the lexical tone, i.e. tone as an inherent estate of a lexeme, and the grammatical tone wich marks grammatical houses. the writer lived in a Kwanyama-speaking neighborhood in Angola for approximately part a yr and had the chance there to enhance her linguistic competence. As a researcher she retains to the culture of Generative Phonology within the feel that there are ideas that take the tone styles from the underlying illustration to a binary floor illustration, i.e. tonemes. so that it will aid the reader to stick with the argumentation of the tonal research, this e-book is organised in any such means that the segmental and tonal degrees are mentioned individually, by means of discussions on tone in nouns, verbs and minor be aware different types. After that, the research is said to the broader context of analysis on Guthrie's crew R languages, particularly the Wambo languages. ultimately, the reader unearths nominal and verbal paradigms in addition to a few texts, and a vocabulary Kwanyama-Englisch containing approximately 6,000 entries.

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We can prevent the reader from asking them by being conservative in the way we handle punctuation and every other aspect of style. By “being conservative” here, I mean two things: (1) not making little, distracting errors, and (2) operating within the code your readers expect. Just know the conventions and follow them. Writers sometimes ignore the conventions we share and instead use a private code. Ultimately, the motives don’t matter. What matters is that unusual usages like the ones below call attention to themselves.

Here, the right words are in the right order, so quotation marks reveal the intent: Use “mentally challenged individuals” instead of “morons” from now on. The writer is not talking about people, but about terms. ¶¶¶ The legislation is bitterly opposed by area farmers and ranchers, who fear that the introduction of wolves into the park would threaten their livestock. What You Need to Know First: 19 Principles 31 And now we come to the dilemma posed by our readers’ varying skill in decoding structures of language.

The legislation is bitterly opposed by area farmers and ranchers who fear that the introduction of wolves into the park would threaten their livestock. There’s an altogether different meaning. 5 Your reader has some responsibility too. These distinctions in meaning are what the code of the language supports, but that doesn’t make any difference if the reader doesn’t know the code. The best we can do as writers is to know how the code works and to craft our meaning according to the conventions of the code.

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