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Andean journeys: migration, ethnogenesis, and the state in by Karen Vieira Powers

By Karen Vieira Powers

This account of the local peoples of Ecuador within the 16th and 17th century exhibits how they not just resisted, tailored, and survived Spanish colonization yet reinvented themselves as a tradition. provided are either a revisionist therapy of the demographic historical past of Amerindian Ecuador and a clearer figuring out of North Andean ethnogenesis. Powers's research of Andean inhabitants routine within the Audiencia of Quito from 1535 to 1700 indicates that local migrations account for a inhabitants raise in Quito in the course of a time while contiguous components skilled a quick decline in Indian inhabitants. past reconstructing the move of the local peoples, Powers additionally explores how migration replaced the lives of Indians and Spaniards. The migratory circulate from local groups to Spanish towns, fabric turbines, and haciendas ended in a continuously mutating colonial global. For elite Spaniards, the migrations intended the close to cave in of the tribute and compelled hard work process, whereas nonelite Spaniards have been capable of reap the benefits of the choice hard work provided by means of the migrant Indians, leading to social mobility and the formation of recent sessions. For Indians, the migrations have been at first a survival technique yet resulted in the decline of the normal chiefdom. A key discovering of the learn is that Ecuadorean Indians completed cultural survival by means of reconstructing Andean lifeways contained in the websites to which they migrated.

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Movements from Marginal Areas to the Center In the first half of the sixteenth century, the destabilizing events of Spanish colonization diffused Quito's indigenous population. The wanton acts of expeditionaries and unrestrained encomenderos (grantees of encomiendas) resulted in the forced migration of thousands of Andeans to scattered locations. Spontaneous and orchestrated flight to peripheral areas of the audiencia also occurred, as individuals and groups sought safety from the savage invader.

I would also like to acknowledge my debt to Frank Salomon, Robson Tyrer, and the late Thierry Saignes, whose pioneering works have made my journey smoother and shorter. Several institutions have also contributed to both the successful completion of this book and to my formation as a scholar. I would like to thank: the City University of New York for providing me with a tuition-free, undergraduate education; New York University for much-needed, graduate school funding; the Fulbright-Hays Commission and the Social Science Research Council for financing extensive research in Ecuador and Spain; and Northern Arizona University for its support during the project's revision stages.

6 times) between 1590 and 1670 (table 2). By comparing the Morales Figueroa census and the Relación de Zaruma of 1590-91 with Tyrer's and Alchon's projections for the 1660s and 1670s, one can extract population growth for specific areas of the central and north-central highlands (table 4). ," 1591; Tyrer, Historia demográfica, p. 45; Alchon, Native Society, p. 80. Note: Percentage changes are impressionistic since they were calculated by averaging the Zaruma and Morales figures for 1590 and 1591 and the Tyrer and Alchon figures for the 1660s and 1670s.

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